SPSS Assignment Help: Validity and Reliability of Questionnaires

To be considered acceptable, a questionnaire must have both reliability and validity. The former examines the questionnaire’s consistency, whereas the latter measures how closely the results match reality.

A questionnaire is a list of questions used in research. These questions seek responders’ demographic, personal, factual, and attitude data. The questions allow the respondent to express their views on a topical issue. These include customer satisfaction surveys, product use surveys, and business communications surveys.

The sort of data sought from the questionnaire directly influences its design. Quantitative questions evaluate previously provided hypotheses, whereas qualitative questionnaires acquire expository information.

Common Types of Questionnaire.

  • Unstructured Surveys

This sort of survey collects qualitative data. This questionnaire form contains a basic structure and some branching questions but no questions that limit a respondent’s replies. The questions are more open-ended here.

Top Qualities of a Good Questionnaire:

A questionnaire’s reliability and validity are critical. May assess your questionnaire reliability and truth statistically, depending on the questionnaire’s design and intent

Rate stability

This includes re-distributing the questionnaire to the same set of people. Then compare the two replies. Memory effects limit this sort of dependability test. If respondents answer questions as they did the last time, it may give the researcher an illusory sense of trustworthiness. To lessen memory effects, extend the time between the first and second tests.

Formal parallelism

The questionnaire is prepared in parallel variants (A and B). Both forms would collect the same data, but the questions would differ. Respondents must complete both forms. The correlation between the two forms estimates the questionnaire’s reliability. This checker’s flaw is its high cost.

How do check the Validity of a Questionnaire?

Ensure facial validity

First, have knowledgeable individuals review your questionnaire, and they should assess if your questionnaire adequately captured the topic. Second, have a questionnaire specialist check for duplicate, ambiguous, and leading questions.

Pilot test

Pilot test sample sizes vary, and you can use a small or big sample size. Assuming 20 participants per question, a 30-item survey would require 600 responses. After the respondents fill out the form, you may identify which queries are irrelevant.

The pilot test in a sheet

Cleanse the data in a spreadsheet. Let one person read while the other enters. This reduces errors that may occur when one person reads and inputs data. Negatively rephrase questions to see if respondents replied carelessly. Positive paraphrased questions would match negative translated questions if answered questions correctly. If there is any discrepancy, the questionnaire should be discarded. Check the data sets’ lowest and maximum values. A 6-point Liker scale indicates a mistake.


Used to locate subordinate components, they inform you what factors your questions measure. Factor loadings ranged from -1.0 to 1. When grouping factor loadings, search for values of 0.60 or greater. If you are a novice, do not attempt PCA.

Interdependence of questions on the same factor

This stage evaluates consistency in replies and correlation between questions loading onto the same factor—Cronbach’s alpha (CA). CA ranges from 0 to 1. 0.60-0.70 is also acceptable. If your CA value is low, consider deleting a question.

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